Professor Barry Eichengreen writes in The Guardian on the unbalanced German economy, which I have posted on many times. As he says, the country’s large current account surplus reflects the excess of domestic savings over investment, as a matter of accounting. But he puts this down to an ageing population prudently saving for retirement, so does not see any medium term reversal of the household sector’s resulting financial surplus.
What he does not mention is the large net savings of German companies. To put it another way, corporate savings, or retained earnings, are larger than corporate investment. Rebalancing the German economy, and arguably restoring much greater prosperity to the EU and the eurozone, requires an increase of investment relative to savings. This an either be accomplished by consumption rising and the savings rate falling, the investment rate rising, or some combination of the two.
Although it is widely believed that Germany is an economic success story due to its successful exporters and low unemployment, its imbalances are a problem for Europe and the rest of the world economy. Continue reading →
Put briefly, austerity weakens aggregate demand when it cannot be offset by monetary policy (as has been the case since the recession). This may create an ‘innovations gap’. Firms facing reduced demand for their products will slow down the rate at which they create or utilize new products, processes and technology via new investment, leading to weaker growth in productivity. This sort of investment would have ’embodied’ the new technology, but in its absence, the improvements will not take place.
An interesting recent paper here from the Levy Economics Institute of Bard College on the prospects for the US economy in the coming years. The authors use their model, which was developed with the late post-Keynesian economist Wynne Godley (one of the few to have predicted the Great Recession), to take stock of the current situation and to discuss alternative future scenarios.
Nikiforos and Zezza argue that the US economy has performed relatively poorly since the Great Recession, and growth outcomes continue to disappoint. Although headline unemployment is relatively low, there remains substantial labour underutilization in the form of ‘marginally attached workers’ and involuntary part-time workers, which when added to the headline rate is known as the U6 measure. The latter is nearly double the headline rate, and helps to explain the continued weakness in wage growth.
The US economy faces three headwinds which continue to constrain growth: income inequality, fiscal conservatism, and the weak performance of net exports (exports minus imports). Continue reading →
According to Tom O’Leary the underlying aim of austerity has been to restore business profits, by putting downward pressure on wages, and reducing taxes on business and the rich. But while wages have stagnated, profits have not recovered significantly. As profits lead investment, growth in the latter has been weak, and the basis for an improved growth performance and living standards has so far failed to materialize.
Those on the right would respond to this by engaging in deregulation and further austerity, which might include reducing workers’ rights and environmental protections, and deepening cuts in public spending and taxes. Such policies would be short-sighted and damaging. Those on the left would favour a large increase in public investment in order to ‘crowd in’ private investment. This could be far more beneficial, as growth in public investment has been weak for years, while the burden of regulation remains relatively low internationally. But at the moment the UK has an unassailable right wing government too distracted by Brexit to engage in such a progressive agenda. Continue reading →
Many of my European friends ask me about Martin Schulz and the success of social-democrats at the polls. Since they are progressive, they hope for reforms in the eurozone to curb mass unemployment, stellar youth unemployment and social problems that exist in many crisis countries. I always had my doubts if Martin Schulz was the […]
Margaret Thatcher is irrevocably associated with neo-liberal politics
What has neo-liberalism got to do with productivity? Since the financial crisis many countries in both the rich and emerging world have experienced slowing productivity growth. Productivity growth is what makes rising living standards possible. It enables workers to earn more while working the same hours. Alternatively, it can enable them to earn the same wage while working fewer hours and taking more leisure. Government policy, trade unions and corporate governance can have a strong influence on such outcomes.
The UK economy has seen a particularly dramatic productivity slowdown since the crisis, from annual growth in output per hour of 2.2% between 1996 and 2006, to an average of 0.2% between 2006 and 2016. This is an astonishing turnaround. Continue reading →