Joan Robinson was Professor of Economics at Cambridge. She was a leading figure in what became the post-Keynesian school, having been one of the group of academics surrounding Keynes as he developed the ideas which led to his General Theory in the 1930s.
She was highly productive and covered a broad range of subjects during her life, from the economics of imperfect competition to the theory of economic growth, as well as popular books on economic philosophy and the nature of society. She was well-known for being fierce in debate and for her tireless efforts at critiquing neoclassical theory.
The following is a brief extract from an interview with Diego Pizano conducted in 1977 and included in his Conversations with Great Economists (p.90):
“Keynes was certainly aware that an economic approach to history was only one, yet dispensable, element in the study of society. Economics is a discipline constructed on the basis of elements of many sciences – geography, biology and psychology – and it interacts with a whole range of subjects from the history of culture to politics, law and religion. Keynes had a very good background in most of these disciplines but it is probably true that he was not sufficiently aware of the connections that certainly exist between the economic and the biological process.
…I would like to say that it is crucial to understand the biological basis of human behavior to shed light on the problem of the origin of society. Man was once defined as a tool-making animal, but now it has been discovered that chimpanzees construct tools designed for particular uses. Neither tools, nor manners characterize man: language does. The invention of a procedure that enabled man to convey information about things not present and to speculate about things not known was the great step. Language made social life much richer and complex and this obviously implies that the economic life of man is much more complicated than that of any other species.”